Stage 3

What We Call ‘Toxic Masculinity’ in Other Languages

On the academic database JSTOR, the earliest references to “toxic masculinity” as a concept come from Linda Lindsay’s 2005 Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine article, “Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective.” Lindsay didn’t use the term exactly, but did refer to traits commonly associated with it: “Young men are often told what they should not do, rather than what they should do. ‘Don’t be a Sissy’ or the classic ‘Big boys don’t cry.’ For males, masculine gender roles are presented as more inflexible, than the roles given to women.”: